Types of Draft Fans

industrial axial fansBoiler system has many types of fans such as primary air fans, gas respiration fans and draft fans. Draft fans are broadly classified into two main types based on the area of application in the industry. The type of arrangement used may vary based on the application need.

Forced Draft Fans

Forced draft fan is a kind of pressurized fan that gives positive energy inside a system. They are mostly used in industries in order to improve the thermal efficiency of the boiler system. In a typical boiler system inlet and outlet dampers are utilized in order to maintain the pressure inside the system. A forced draft fan uses a wheel at the center that is hanged on the shaft along with inlet boxes. By the use of forced draft fans, regulation of air flow in large and small industries can be achieved more effectively. Resistance to impact, slip and corrosion are some of the additional benefits of using forced draft fans. Forced draft fans are easier to maintain in air coolers because of the ease operation with the belt, fans and motors.

Advantages of Forced Draft Fans

  • Forced draft requires lower horsepower
  • Easy maintenance
  • Good accessibility of bundles for replacements
  • Can bear high inlet temperatures

Disadvantages of Forced Draft Fans

  • Distribution of air is not uniform
  • Higher chance of hot air recirculation which result from low discharge velocity from bundles and high intake velocity from fan rig.
  • When the fan fails natural draft capability is less.
  • The parts are exposed to the sun, rain which result in poor process control.

Induced Draft fans

Induced draft fans creates negative pressure inside the boiler so that the burnt fuel gases exhaust out from the chimney. Induced fan sits on the path of the hot products of the combustion. They pull things out from the furnace. Introduction of induced draft fans proved the improvement of efficiency by wasting less air from outside. These fans no longer rely on the gravity of the exhaust gases.
Heat exchangers are designed not to slow the products of combustion as they moved by convection inside the furnace. If the exhaust products are slowed down it makes the heat exchanger less efficient and we loose the draft up the chimney. Induced draft system eliminates the problem in the heat exchanger. If induced draft system is not used, it requires extra dilution of air to burn the natural gas. If induced draft fan is utilized, then there is no need for automatic vent damper anymore because when the fan is off, it eliminates the airflow through the venting system.

Advantages of Induced Draft Fans

  • Better distribution of air.
  • The hot air is discharged upward at a higher velocity than the intake velocity.
  • Increased capability in fan off or fan failure situation, due to greater natural draft effect.

Disadvantages of Induced Draft Fans

  • Requires high horsepower if the air supplied is very hot.
  • Supplied air is limited to lower temperatures.
  • Fans are less accessible for maintenance.

Depending upon the need one can use either forced or induced, axial or centrifugal draft fans. It is also important to consider the direction of the air or exhaust gas flow while selecting the types of  draft fans.

Understanding Dental Implants and its Procedure

dental implant LondonDental implant is an artificial tooth root placed into the jaw to hold a bridge or a replacement tooth. Dental implant is best option for people who have lost teeth or a tooth due to injury, periodontal disease, and may be through some other reason.

Types of dental implants

There are two types of dental implants such as :

  • Sub-periosteal (on the bone): This type of dental implants are placed above the jaw with the metal framework that pops out through the gum to support the prosthesis. These are helpful for patients who have very low bone height and are unable to have customary dentures.
  • Endo-steal (in the bone): This is one of the commonly used dental implant. They include cylinders, blades and screws that can be placed surgically into the jaw bone. Each implant in general supports one or more prosthetic teeth. This type of implant is used as an alternative for patients with removable dentures or bridges.

The ideal candidate to have dental implant should have good oral health. Adequate bone and healthy gums that are free of periodontal disease should be present in the jaw to support the implant. Dental implants are closely connected with the underlying bone and the gum tissues in the mouth.

Dental implant procedure: Depending on the type of implant chosen and the specific condition, periodontist and dentist determine how and where the implant should be placed and what treatment plans are feasible to meet the patients’ specific needs.

  • Replacing all of your teeth: If all the teeth are missing or absent, an implant supporting full denture or full bridge can replace them.
  • Replacing several teeth: If many or several teeth are missing then implant supportive bridges will help to replace them.
  • Replacing a single tooth: One crown or an implant can replace missing single tooth.
  • Ridge modification: Impairment in the lower or upper jaw can leave inadequate bone in the place where dental implants can be placed. To set right this problem, the gum is lifted from the ridge to expose the defected bone. Then the defect is filled with bone substitute or bone to build up the ridge. This method have shown that it greatly improves the appearance and also increase the chance for successful implants that can last for long duration.
  • Sinus augmentation: The key factor for successful implant is the quality and quantity of the bone where it has to be placed. It is very difficult to place dental implants successfully in the upper back jaw due to the proximity of the sinus and insufficient bone quality and quantity. Sinus augmentation can help solving this problem by bringing up the sinus floor and promote the bone to grow for placing the implants.
  • After treatment care: As it is known, teeth require thorough oral care and regular dental visits. Similarly, dental implants are like our own teeth and requires the same care. In order to keep the implant plaque free and clean, flossing and brushing regularly is necessary.

Air Abrasion: the Dental Care Technique that Does Not Involve a Dental Drill

Air abrasion is a drill less technique used by dentists to remove tooth decay and for other applications.

How does air abrasion work?
During air abrasion, an instrument sprays a fine stream of particles on the decayed portion of the tooth. These particles constitute fine dust of silica, aluminum oxide, or a mixture of baking soda and are sprayed toward the tooth surface by compressed air or a gas that runs through the equipment. As the process of spraying the particles goes on the decay in the tooth is removed.

Precautions while using air abrasion technique
Protective goggles should be used to prevent eye irritation from the spray and the use of a rubber sheet that fits around teeth thus protecting the surrounding teeth and tissues from harmful effects. The sucking of particles also prevents them from going to the lungs.

Benefits of using air abrasion for tooth decay

  • Air abrasion does not involve noise, pressure, heat or vibration.
  • There is no need of anesthesia. This is more so when the cavity is shallow.
  • Air abrasion makes the dry, which is advantageous during the placement of composite fillings.
  • Risk of fracture and chipping that may cause damage to the tooth is minimal, Fracture/damage could affect the life span of the filling.
  • Air abrasion is useful for the patient because it helps them get treatment for multiple sites.
  • It’s simple and fast.

Drawbacks in using air abrasion

  • Air abrasion can lead to sensitivity.
  • Air abrasion is not recommended for deep cavities those close to the tooth’s pulp. It is best suited for removing small cavities that form early on the surface of teeth.
  • The technique may not be useful unless the surface created by it is not smooth, which is suitable.

Air abrasion is ideal for children and others who are fearful and have minimal decay. It enables effective and painless treatment. It’s suitable for people who are anxious and fearful regarding the drilling procedures and the pain indulged in going with such procedures.
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Rain Garden: Steps to Create & its Benefits

A rain garden is a depression made and deep rooted native plants are planted along with some grasses. It is a flat cavity constructed to receive over flow of water from surfaces like side walk, roof and a driveway. Rain gardens holds the over flow water for short duration of times and enables to penetrate the water into the ground.

fairy housesSteps to create a rain garden
Following are some basic steps to build your own rain garden:

choose the right location

  • First rule in building a rain garden is that it should be placed about 10 feet away from your home to prevent flooding in the house.
  • Choose naturally occurring low spot in your yard such that the rain water gets directed in to the garden. Prefer a location which is either fully or partially in sun.

Measure the drainage area properly

  • Ensure that the area chosen for rain garden receives water regularly during a rain storm.
  • In case of capturing water from roof or any other surface measuring of that area is required according to the type of soil.

Create an accurate design

  • Planning pf the garden should be done properly either for a small or large garden which helps to opt for the best appearance possible for your garden.

Choosing the right plants

  • Native plants should be selected for planting in rain gardens because they get adapted to the climate easily.
  • Choose plants which can grow well both in wet and dry conditions because the rain water will be present temporarily from time to time.

Garden layout

  • The garden shape and boundary have to be made depending on the design created.

Digging of the garden

  • Dig the garden approximately 4-4 inches deep. Using soil, build an edge around the garden if necessary.

Soil preparation

  • Improve the soil by adding compost up to 2-3 inches and mix it well.

Planting

  • Place the plants at appropriate places according to the design using a hand trowel. Ensure that the plants are placed 1 foot apart from each other.

Protecting the garden

  • Coarse, fibrous and shredded wood chips which wont blow or float away can be used for mulching the garden.
  • A 2-3 inch deep mulch have to be placed which helps to retain the moisture and keeping the weeds out.

Watering and making downspouts

  • After successful planting water the garden for alternate days for about two weeks in case of absence of rain.
  • Proper watering along with care and maintenance is required to maintain the quality of the rain garden.

Benefits of rain gardens

  • Rain gardens help to filter runoff pollution thus improving the water quality.
  • Help in increasing the amount of water, which penetrates in to the ground refreshing the regional and local aquifers.
  • Rain gardens enhance the value and attractiveness of your home and neighborhood.
  • Installing rain gardens avoids unnecessary standing of water in your yard and also reduce home flooding.
  • Rain gardens help create a habitat for birds, butterflies and other beneficial insects.
  • It also reduces mosquito breeding.
  • Rain gardens also help in reducing garden maintenance.
  • Rain gardens are very simple to create and associated with various benefits; and it is better to create a rain garden at your home by considering the above information provided for making an elegant space in your yard.
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    Popular Eco-Friendly Countertops for Your Kitchen

    Eco-friendly countertops are gaining popularity today as there is an increase in the demand of eco-friednly products in all the industries. If you are going to install new countertops or have plans to renovate your kitchen countertops then, try to choose eco-freidnly countertops and be a part of the healthy and pollution free environment. Some of the eco-friendly countertops that you can use for your kitchen are:

    Bio-glass
    This is a recycled countertop completely. As it is 100 percent made of glass, it has a translucent appearance. Bio-glass countertops are made of water bottle, wine bottles, etc. Glass is also mixed with other materials for getting a smooth finish. Using recycled materials will make choose this bio-glass countertops more Eco-friendly.

    Paper stone
    It is the most recycled paper countertop material and made of 100 percent petroleum-free resin, pigments and post consumer recycled paper. It has a beautiful appearance and it gives a warm look and smooth appearance. This stone is heat resistant but only to a limited extent. Therefore, take care if you are using too hottest pans on the countertop. It is ideal for the budget conscious people.

    Bamboo
    Bamboo is the best eco-friendly countertop and is a quick renewable source. Bamboo is much stronger and harder when compared to many hardwoods. Check with the availability of the bamboo countertops before you go for the purchase. It looks soothing to the eyes if you have bamboo countertops in your kitchen. The cost of the bamboo countertops is not too more and not too less and it also depends on the availability.

    Icestone
    Icestone countertops are made of fine glass particles of glass set on a pigmented cement. But, this is a porous material and requires sealing along with regular care and maintenance. These are most popular recycled countertops and a spectrum of colors are available in the icestone.

    Squak mountain
    It is seen as a natural stone with beautiful look. It is a mix of recycled paper, glass that is combined with cement. This is a durable countertop like concrete or stone. You need to take extra care if you use this squak mountain as a countertop in your kitchen.

    Concrete
    Concrete is used in the construction since many years. It is also used as a countertop material as they are sustainable, but it requires dye to achieve multitude color and also the surface should be polished to give it a smooth look.

    These are a few eco-friendly countertops that you can use for your kitchen and make your kitchen eco-friendly with all the green products.
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    All About Online Advertising

    What is online advertising?
    Till now we are much acquainted with the traditional way of marketing that used media like newspapers, television advertisements, magazines, books, pamphlets, etc. Now the picture has changed and the trend is shifting towards online advertising. As the name says, online advertising is all about using the internet platform to market and target the product. The incredible and excessive use of internet in today’s scenario has proved to be a worthy tool to market the product and services. Apparently, internet is accessible and viable to everyone and getting popular among the masses these days.

    Ad servingTypes of internet advertising
    When it comes to the mode and diversity of approach, surely internet marketing has a lot to offer over the traditional way of marketing. Unlike the traditional ways of marketing, internet marketing is diverse and catchy. The methods of approach can be made interactive and attractive. Different types of online marketing are as follows:

    • Email marketing: Email marketing uses emails as a medium to communicate and interact with the prospective customers. Different profiling methods are used to grab the email addresses of the customers and target them with the products. One of the major benefit of email marketing is the fact that it reaches the customer directly.
    • Social media marketing: Social media is being widely used nowadays. Everyone who uses internet has a social media account on one or more sites. Advertising on social media platform gives a good means to reach a number of masses through little efforts.
    • Search engine marketing: The brand websites offer a lot of information to the customers and is a very vital advertising tool. When a customer goes for a search through a search engine, he generally considers the links that are first in the list. Search engine optimization is all about improving the ranking in the search results.
    • Web banners: Most of you might have came across these kind of advertisements. It is the art of sponsoring websites by creating ad space on the website. Many of the free websites displays web ads mostly at the boundaries or corners of the web page.

    How does online marketing help businesses?
    Trend is steadily shifting from traditional marketing towards the online marketing. This is majorly because of the benefits online marketing has to offer. One of the major benefits is, online marketing is cost effective. It does not use any printing material and base, hence it is cheap. The second one is the reach of the technique. This marketing strategy is equally effective in local, national and international markets and builds a brand name much easily. The speed of approach is also good and the strategist can measure the effectiveness of the campaign.
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    Decorate Your Garden With Small Water Fall

    Do you want your garden to be more visually appealing? Then, decorate it with water fall. To construct a small water fall in your home garden you need to follow few steps. Here we have given few simple steps that can help you out.

    Select a location
    Selecting a location in your garden for waterfall should be in such a way that it should be visually pleasing. In selecting the location, you need to consider the factors like, size of the waterfall, shape, slope and also the foundation. The factors that you consider for your waterfall should match the landscape of the garden. Once you select the location go for stone and material gathering.

    Gather the stone and other materials
    Stone has the major role in the waterfall construction, so select various types of stones that are necessary for your waterfall like rock, sand, gravel, quarries, etc. Check their size and color. Ask for their prices and finally select different stones that make your waterfall more beautiful. Without the stone, waterfall is incomplete. You should also collect all the required tools and materials for the construction of waterfall.

    Start digging the selected location
    Now, start digging the selected location. This specialized work can’t be completed by your own so you need to take the help of someone. Start digging the selected location which includes the depth and height of the waterfall.

    Decorate the waterfall with gravel
    Once the digging is completed, lay the liner and put all the waterfall stones. Fill the gaps in between the stones and use the waterfall sealant in between the rocks to make them stick firmly. For creating a good seal you need to apply a foam sealant. The stones should be placed in a layered manner so that it gives a natural look to your waterfall. Once it is over, finally add gravel in the waterfall bed to give earthy appearance. If interested you can also make use of stepping stones.

    Release water
    Once all the construction work is over clean the rocks and remove the extra linear. Now, release the water through the pump placed inside the waterfall. Keep washing away the stream and the rock until the water from pump runs clear. With this step, waterfall is completed.

    Now start constructing a water fall and give your garden an appealing look.
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    New Car Launches by KIA in USA in 2014

    KIA Motors is one of the leading automotive manufacturers in the country. Kia Motors is launching this year new car models. This article furnishes specifications and their performance features.
    Some of the new cars being launched by Kia Motors we are going to discuss in this article are:

    • Kia Soul
    • Kia Cadenza

    Kia Soul 2014
    Kia Soul is a Small Station Wagon manufactured by Jeep motors. The Kia Soul has been one of the brand’s greatest hits in automobiles

    Specifications of Kia Soul 2014

    Gas Mileage 24 mpg City/30 mpg Hwy
    Fuel Economy combined 26 mpg
    Engine Regular Unleaded I-4, 1.6 L
    Driving Type Front Wheel Drive
    Base Curb Weight 1231.05 KG
    Passenger Capacity 5
    Turning Diameter – Curb to Curb (ft) 34.8
    Net Horse Power @ RPM 130 @ 6300
    EPA Class Small Station Wagon
    Net Torque @ RPM 118 @ 4850
    Steering Type Rack-Pinion
    Displacement 1.6 L/97
    Passenger Doors 4
    Body Style 4dr Car
    Fuel Tank capacity 53.75 Liters (14.2 Gallons)
    Transmission system 6-Speed Manual

    Features of Kia Soul 2014

    • A heated steering wheel
    • Heated rear seats
    • Cooled/ventilated front seats
    • Power locks, windows, and mirrors, heated mirrors,
    • Telescopic steering wheel
    • Blue tooth hands-free connectivity, and a six-speaker sound system with USB and auxiliary inputs.
    • Sirius XM satellite radio
    • Turn-signal indicators in the side mirrors
    • Automatic headlamps.
    • rear-seat center armrest
    • A floor-console storage box with integrated armrest in front
    • fog lamps, projector headlamps, and LED running lamps front and back.
      • Safety Features
    • Total of six airbags with dual front airbags.
    • Seat-mounted side bags, and full-length side curtain bags.
    • Superior four-wheel disc brakes
    • Anti-lock braking,
    • Brake Assist system
    • Electronic stability control System
    • Hill-start Assist sysytem.

    Performance of Kia Soul 2014

    • A I4-Cylinder engine 130-horsepower 1.6-liter engine, 6-Speed Manual Transmission system.
    • Fuel Efficiency of 24 city/30 hwy
    • The combine rating of this car is 26mpg.
    • V6-cylinder engine allows the Jeep Wrangler to get 60 mph in just 16.2 seconds.

    Kia Cadenza 2014
    Kia Cadenza is a Large Cars manufactured by Jeep motors.

    Specifications of Kia Cadenza 2014

    Gas Mileage 19 mpg City/28 mpg Hwy
    Fuel Economy combined 22 mpg
    Engine Regular Unleaded V-6, 3.3 L
    Driving Type Front Wheel Drive
    EPA Class Large Cars
    Passenger Capacity 5
    Turning Diameter – Curb to Curb (ft) 36.5
    Net Horse Power @ RPM 293 @ 6400
    Base Curb Weight 166.77 KG
    Net Torque @ RPM 255 @ 5200
    Steering Type Rack-Pinion
    Displacement 3.3 L/204
    Passenger Doors 4
    Transmission system 6-Speed Automatic w/Sportmatic including steering wheel mounted paddle shifters.
    Body Style 4dr Car
    Fuel Tank capacity 70.03 Liters 18.5 Gallons)

    Features of Cadenza 2014

    • Panoramic sunroof, power retractable sunshade,
    • Active front lighting system, Nappa leather seats,
    • A ventilated driver’s seat,
    • Heated rear outboard seats,
    • A power-adjustable steering column.
    • hydrophobic front-door glass.
    • An electronic parking brake.
    • Smart cruise control.
    • Blind-spot detection.
    • Lane departure warning.
    • split-screen views
    • traffic warnings, and even an automatic-rerouting box.
      • Safety Features
    • Eight standard airbags, including front and rear seat-mounted side bags
    • Full-length side-curtain bags.
    • A rear camera system
    • Backup warning sensors.
    • advanced smart cruise control system.
    • lane-departure warning system
    • Blind spot detection system

    Performance of Kia Cadenza 2014

    • A V6-Cylinder engine 293-horsepower 3.3-liter engine, 6-Speed Automatic Transmission system.
    • Fuel efficiency of 19 city/28 hwy
    • The combine rating of this car is 22mpg.
    • V6-cylinder engine allows the Kia Cadenza to get 60 mph in just 6.3 seconds.

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    OSHA: Falling Hazards During Demolition

    The construction industry is a very critical industry when it comes to safety of the workers. And when it comes to demolition, there are many unseen and surprise elements that are hard to interpret. Demolition work sites contains numerous hazards that can jeopardize the safety of the workers. While many of them are clearly visible, there are hazards which requires a keen eye and experience to locate them. Sometimes there are workplaces that may appear quite strong and safe but they may give up unexpectedly. Hence, demolition sites poses a lot of hazardous workplace situations that has to be dealt with great care.

    Risk and causes for falling during demolition
    While discussing about the hazards associated with demolition work, the most frequent and common hazard present in the workplace is the hazard of falling. There are innumerable ways this hazard can happen. Most of the times, it happens unprecedentedly. The most effective measure to counter such hazards is the art of self evaluation and judgment. This comes after enough experience in field and training. Hence an employer must always provide training to his workers regarding safety practices.

    There are many things that may lead to a fall when working in a demolition site. It can be a weak harness, undue loads on the surface, presence of paints, unseen obstructions in the way, presence of slippery material that reduces friction between the surface and the point of contact. Some other times, some moving machinery or objects may be responsible for pushing you when you are not aware of them. The unknown strength and weakness of the structures in demolition site is a reason why workers can not predict the hazards. Most of the time they look strong but collapses with little force and weights.

    OSHA measures to prevent falls
    OSHA provides some general guidelines to prevent the falling hazards in construction site. The guidelines are as follows:

    • The walls and the floors that are in poor condition and lacks support though they appear healthy must be braced or shored up if it requires workers to enter the place for some work.
    • Appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) should be selected before entering the work place and the PPE should be checked properly before using it. A worker should wear the PPE that fits him well.
    • The work site and the structures like passageways, stairs and ladders must be inspected carefully before entering. Proper illumination should be provided at the demolition site.
    • All services like electricity, gas, water, steam, sewers etc should be shut down and the concerned authorities should be notified about it.
    • Guard wall openings up to a height of 42 inches should be covered with appropriate material that can with sustain the load to be put.
    • The floor openings that are created for the disposal of the material should not be more than 25% of the total floor space.
    • When demolition material has to be dropped in the debris containers or ground, closed chutes with gates have to be used.
    • The demolition of the floors and walls should always start from the top and end as one comes downwards.
    • Any supporting structures supporting a floor should not be removed until all the floors above that floor are removed.
    • Any ornamental roof stone work or cornices should be removed before bringing the roof down.
    • If at any place, structural collapse hazard exists, the workers should not be permitted to enter the area until the structures are properly braced, shored or any other effective measure is put in place.

    The list is not exhaustive and a lot depends on the presence of mind of the worker and initiatives of the employer to ensure that perfect safety at work is maintained.
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    Advancements in Medical Electronics

    Medical electronics is a domain where advancements are too late. The existing technologies or equipment like electrocardiography, X-ray medical imaging and stethoscope gave rise to the new technology developments in medical electronics. The advancements in both medical and electronics industry have led to improvement in equipment. Scientists’ new inventions help the medical professionals: physicians and paramedics in treating and diagnosing the patients. Here are a few advancements made at present in the field of medical electronics.

    Diagnostic devices
    Diagnostic devices are one of the advancements in the medical electronics field. With the help of this devices, the electrical engineers will quantify, records the sounds and displays them graphically on oscilloscope or on an chart. Now, the clinician or the physician will check the temporal relationship among the various components of the sounds displayed and then identifies the murmurs nothing but sounds and these are are the signs of the heart valves diseases or the other parts of the heart.

    The other way to understand the relation between how the heart works and the progress of disease is by looking at a plot of sounds made by the heart. Here, the engineers and the physician will measure the amplitudes of various components of phonocardiogram and also temporal relationships.

    Further advancements in this technology is made using voice printing the sounds on a 3D plot of amplitude , time and frequency components.

    Bioelectricity
    Understanding electrical fields and currents is associated with mammalian cells, organisms and organs is a major advancement over the last few years. Electrocardiograph is a device, which was developed based on electricity was simple when compared to the string galvanometer developed originally by Einthoven’s.

    With the help of this electrocardiograph, the electrical activity of the heart is recorded in different directions, which helps the cardiologists to understand the rate of heart beat. Other equipment that use bio electricity is cardiac pacemakers, which helps in controlling heart beats, and electrical stimulation aural and visual senses given by Cochlear prosthesis, visual prosthesis, etc.

    Medical imaging
    Medical imaging is the other area in which medical advancements are done over last 100 years. Among the various advancements made that uses medical imaging technology two are noticeable they are CT (Computed tomographic) scanner and MRI. These both shows the images with different anatomical structures. Today many countries use the MRI (Magnetic resonance imaging) for the identification of various diseases in the body replacing or surpassing the CT scanner because the CT scanner will only scan the bone parts and other soft issues were as MRI scans the soft tissues as well as shows the contrast between tissues with varying water level.

    Nuclear Medicine Imaging:
    This advancement takes the help of nuclear medicine through which images are made to diagnose the disease process in the body with the help of physiology and cellular function. This imaging done will have radionuclides that are combined with other elements which can form chemical compounds or else they are combined with existing pharmaceutical compounds that can form radiopharmaceuticals. This nuclear medicine is know given to the patient which can localize cellular receptors or specific organs. Know the radiopharmaceuticals will give the nuclear medicine the ability to take the images. Further advancements will provide imputes to the molecular medicine.

    Imaging With Visible light
    Miniature camera technology lead to the wide spread of endoscopic devices to be produced which help the physicians to visualize the inaccessible areas of the abdominal cavity, reproductive organs and urinary tract etc. The endoscopic devices which are used earlier used fiber optic cables which are attached with external cameras to take the images but now, miniature video cameras can be affixed at the edge of the device which allows to manufacture more versatile and flexible instruments. New techniques will reduce the decontamination as they don’t have much issues with cleaning and sterilization process which is not the case in the earlier procedures.

    Other new technique called capsule endoscopy is having capsule that contains video camera and a radio transmitter that passes easily through guts which can transmit color images to the external monitor attached to the device.

    Biomedical sensors
    Sensor is the important part of the medical instrumentation system which is responsible for interfacing between biologic organism and electronic system that process data. This sensors will collect the physiological data which will interact with biological structure without any changes made in the properties.

    With the advancement of the micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology in biomedical sensor and instrumentation lead to the reduction in the size of the biomedical sensing device while increasing the complexity. Even though, there is a problem in the connections between the sensors and the signal processing, readout devices. This problem is know rectified with the help of wireless body sensor networks.

    Further, future enhancements in the medical electronics field will be more helpful for the physicians to diagnose the problems easily and effectively.
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