Advancements in Medical Electronics

Medical electronics is a domain where advancements are too late. The existing technologies or equipment like electrocardiography, X-ray medical imaging and stethoscope gave rise to the new technology developments in medical electronics. The advancements in both medical and electronics industry have led to improvement in equipment. Scientists’ new inventions help the medical professionals: physicians and paramedics in treating and diagnosing the patients. Here are a few advancements made at present in the field of medical electronics.

Diagnostic devices
Diagnostic devices are one of the advancements in the medical electronics field. With the help of this devices, the electrical engineers will quantify, records the sounds and displays them graphically on oscilloscope or on an chart. Now, the clinician or the physician will check the temporal relationship among the various components of the sounds displayed and then identifies the murmurs nothing but sounds and these are are the signs of the heart valves diseases or the other parts of the heart.

The other way to understand the relation between how the heart works and the progress of disease is by looking at a plot of sounds made by the heart. Here, the engineers and the physician will measure the amplitudes of various components of phonocardiogram and also temporal relationships.

Further advancements in this technology is made using voice printing the sounds on a 3D plot of amplitude , time and frequency components.

Bioelectricity
Understanding electrical fields and currents is associated with mammalian cells, organisms and organs is a major advancement over the last few years. Electrocardiograph is a device, which was developed based on electricity was simple when compared to the string galvanometer developed originally by Einthoven’s.

With the help of this electrocardiograph, the electrical activity of the heart is recorded in different directions, which helps the cardiologists to understand the rate of heart beat. Other equipment that use bio electricity is cardiac pacemakers, which helps in controlling heart beats, and electrical stimulation aural and visual senses given by Cochlear prosthesis, visual prosthesis, etc.

Medical imaging
Medical imaging is the other area in which medical advancements are done over last 100 years. Among the various advancements made that uses medical imaging technology two are noticeable they are CT (Computed tomographic) scanner and MRI. These both shows the images with different anatomical structures. Today many countries use the MRI (Magnetic resonance imaging) for the identification of various diseases in the body replacing or surpassing the CT scanner because the CT scanner will only scan the bone parts and other soft issues were as MRI scans the soft tissues as well as shows the contrast between tissues with varying water level.

Nuclear Medicine Imaging:
This advancement takes the help of nuclear medicine through which images are made to diagnose the disease process in the body with the help of physiology and cellular function. This imaging done will have radionuclides that are combined with other elements which can form chemical compounds or else they are combined with existing pharmaceutical compounds that can form radiopharmaceuticals. This nuclear medicine is know given to the patient which can localize cellular receptors or specific organs. Know the radiopharmaceuticals will give the nuclear medicine the ability to take the images. Further advancements will provide imputes to the molecular medicine.

Imaging With Visible light
Miniature camera technology lead to the wide spread of endoscopic devices to be produced which help the physicians to visualize the inaccessible areas of the abdominal cavity, reproductive organs and urinary tract etc. The endoscopic devices which are used earlier used fiber optic cables which are attached with external cameras to take the images but now, miniature video cameras can be affixed at the edge of the device which allows to manufacture more versatile and flexible instruments. New techniques will reduce the decontamination as they don’t have much issues with cleaning and sterilization process which is not the case in the earlier procedures.

Other new technique called capsule endoscopy is having capsule that contains video camera and a radio transmitter that passes easily through guts which can transmit color images to the external monitor attached to the device.

Biomedical sensors
Sensor is the important part of the medical instrumentation system which is responsible for interfacing between biologic organism and electronic system that process data. This sensors will collect the physiological data which will interact with biological structure without any changes made in the properties.

With the advancement of the micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology in biomedical sensor and instrumentation lead to the reduction in the size of the biomedical sensing device while increasing the complexity. Even though, there is a problem in the connections between the sensors and the signal processing, readout devices. This problem is know rectified with the help of wireless body sensor networks.

Further, future enhancements in the medical electronics field will be more helpful for the physicians to diagnose the problems easily and effectively.
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CAD/CAM Technology for Dental Restorations

CAD/CAM is an acronym for computer-aided design or computer aided manufacturing. With the invention of the technology the dentist work is reduced as well, the patients need not spend more time. This type of technologies is needed for the humankind as they reduce the wastage of time and money, which is the major issue. In this busy schedule, everyone wanted to finish his or her work quickly. CAD/CAM technology is developed in dentistry for the comfort and convenience for dentists. This technology with E4D dentist system is recently developed.

In dentistry, the CAD/CAM technology helps the patients in having the dental crowns in very less no. of appointments. CAD/CAM technology use E4D dentist system. This machine produces several types of dental restorations like crowns, dental inlays, outlays and veneers, which can be placed in only one appointment.

Preparation of dental restorations with CAD/CAM technology:
At first by using an optical scanner the digital image of the teeth are captured and this 3D custom image of the captured image is displayed on the computer screen. These 3D images are also obtained by teeth impressions obtained through the conventional method. Next, the technician will use CAD software or 3D images to prepare the design of the final restorations. The time taken for designing this depends on the technician’s experience, complexity of case etc.
The final restoration prepared is finally sent to the milling chamber for applying ceramic material. This is then customized in the way that it matches the patient’s natural teeth and finally polished. Now, the dentist will operate it to the patient.

Advantages over traditional method:

  • No multiple visits to the dentist for getting the restorations.
  • These are stronger than the restorations made with the traditional method.
  • These CAD/CAM restorations are less likely to fracture.
  • If the dentist of your have this machine then you can get the work done in, few minutes and you do not want to choose traditional methods for getting the restorations.

Other than these benefits, it is having some limitations:

  • This technology needs a specially trained and experienced dentist to operate which involves E4D Dentist Chairside CAD/CAM System.
  • This is more expensive than other dental treatments.
  • Sometimes it may take 2 to 3 visits if the dentist is not having this technology in their office.
  • If the patient is given a second appointment then he/she must use the temporary restorations during that period, which are given by the dentists.

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Root Canal Treatment- A Solution for Infected and Damaged Teeth

Root canal treatment is also known as endodontics. This treatment is given to people who have infected teeth in the nerve supply portion which is at the center of the teeth and caused through a injury like tooth decay.

Cosmetic Dentist LondonPossible reasons for root canal treatment:
The reasons may be any of the following:

  • When the bacteria enters the mouth and invades the teeth
  • Having problems like broken teeth
  • Pulp region is infected due to some bacterial infections
  • Discolored teeth
  • Severe tooth pain, swelling and pain during chewing
  • Forming of pus on the gums
  • Having sensitivity problems

Dentist StratfordRoot canal treatment and how it is useful:
It takes about two to three visits for the complete treatment. At first the dentist will check the condition of the teeth and will take X-Ray copies of it. Later the infected teeth is taken out and later it is filled temporarily by crowing or filling.

During the second visit the dentist will check whether the infection is cleared or not. If cleared dentist will proceed for the permanent filling of the teeth.

Root canal treatment is successful and causes no pain, but may have little bit of tenderness. After the treatment you will have bright teeth.

Uses of root canal treatment:
With this treatment you will have strong and healthy teeth. The uses of root canal treatment are:
Dentist Camden

  • Having natural appearance of teeth
  • You can see your teeth without any strains
  • No swelling or pain during eating
  • Makes chewing comfortable

Precautions taken after the treatment:

  • Remember to approach the dentist at least once in a month
  • Brush or clean your teeth with fluoride toothpastes
  • Drink water containing fluoride
  • Have a balanced and healthy dietary habits
  • Avoid foods containing sugar and drinks
  • If you have the habit of smoking, get rid of it

Consult the best dentist, have proper treatment as suggested by your dentist and follow the precautions.
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Get to Know Dental Sealants

Dental sealants are the strong plastic coatings that your dentist will apply to the chewing surfaces of the back teeth where the pits and fissures form. Sealants act as a barrier and protect the teeth from bacterial plaque that causes decay. In this article, we will discuss all about dental sealants.

Why are these dental sealants used?
Sealants occupy the pits and fissures of the teeth with a resin material. As these pits and fissures are filled, bacteria in the plaque will not be able to attack the teeth. With pits and fissure sealants, there are less chances of developing tooth decay when compared to those without sealants. Moreover, teeth with sealants are easier to clean, as food particles do not get trapped in the fissures.

Types of fissure sealants
Choosing the type of the sealant depends on one’s personal preference. However, colored sealants are more obvious in person who has already a sealant. The more obvious the sealant is, the easier it is to see whether they need replacement.

Two types of resin based sealants are available – filled and unfilled. The fillers’ purpose is to increase the bonding strength and also resistance to wear and abrasion. As filled sealants are hard and wear resistant, it should be checked after placement and if required, should be adjusted with the hand piece (dental instrument) and appropriate bur (a cutter used in hand piece).

Unfilled sealants have a higher ratio of resin in the filler material and does not require to be adjusted with a hand piece or any other instrument. They are self occluding. Unfilled sealants flow in to pit and fissures readily.

Maintenance and home care
Once the sealants are placed, your child can resume to his/her normal activity. Special care is not required for maintaining dental sealants. Good oral hygiene should be practiced with brushing and flossing.

Switch on to the diet that is low in sugar and starch. You need to visit the dentist regularly as there is a possibility of the sealant popping out. Your dentist will check the sealant and if required will replace it.

It is recommended to continue your dental visits regularly, as there is still chances of developing tooth decay under or around the sealant.

Benefits for applying dental sealants

  • If properly applied, dental sealants can be very effective in preventing tooth decay.
  • Even an early tooth decay will be stopped from growing more deep, as decay causing bacteria are unable to survive when they are cut off from the food supply.
  • Sealants are safe for using on anyone’s teeth: children as well as adults.
  • If placed properly, sealants will last as long as the typical amalgam filling.
  • Lastly, applying dental sealants in advance as a preventive measure will save you from spending thousands later.

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Features and Advantages of a Convertible Car

Electric fuel pumpA convertible car, also called a convertible, is a car whose top can be customized to be used not to be used. The tops are stored in the rear portion of the car and activated through battery power while manual activation is also present in few models. When the top is erected, it 1) has to be fixed manually to the windshield, 2) It is semi-automatically fixed to the windshield 3) It is completely automatic.

Types
1) Cloth-top: A suitable material which is typically a fabric of cloth is used and it is waterproof. The cloth is stretched over a framework of metal rods and this decreases the rigidity of the vehicle at higher speeds. There is always a wobbly nature to the top no matter how perfect the fixation is. It is light weight, which is an advantage, but the cloth tend to wear off, since it is used in rough weather conditions.

2) Hard-top: The hard top is generally preferred over a cloth top by it’s looks and durability, but with the sliding mechanisms inherent in it, it adds weight to the top of the car, which severely affects driving performance at high speeds.

Advantages
Driving with an open roof gives one a good feeling. The experience with the world is direct and pleasurable. But, it doesn’t make a difference when movement is the motive. A technical advantage that convertibles have is that it eliminates the driver’s blind spot offering a good view of the sides. For some people traveling in a car could sometimes be claustrophobic. A convertible car helps in such situations.

Disadvantages
1) Cloth tops can be damaged with equipment, so it is always unsafe.
2) The trunk space is very limited because the rooftop has to be fitted in while retracted.
3) Riders easily get exposed to pollution and dust.
4) They can also wear-off over time.
5) Since there are too many joints and folds there is a possibility of leakage.
6) Reduced safety as compared with a solid-body car because of reduced general structural rigidity. A car with an immobile roof provides stronger protection and gives additional strength to be body in case of a crash. In case the car upturns with the top open there is no protection at all.

Some of the best models:
a) Porsche Cabriolet 911
b) Jaguar XK
c) Mercedes Benz XL
d) Aston Martin Vantage

Purchase: Good if you like to have an open air cruise around the town often and if you need attention.
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Advanced Motion Controls in Your Recent Car

A brief introduction
The car in the market is not the epitome of luxury, comfort and safety only. It provides a completely new experience of driving with new innovative features. A lot of accidents happens on the roads due the driver lacking the expertise of driving a car or loosing his ability of reflexes in a turmoil. He may apparently loose his alertness over tiresome long journeys. Busy roads and a lot of cars on roads require high levels of expertise in driving and in parking the vehicle also. This marked the need for the advanced motion control features in the automobiles.

Electronic stability control
Electronic stability control is designed with the sole purpose of checking skidding of a vehicle. Skidding is a very vulnerable situation when a vehicle loses its control and starts going haywire not obeying the commands of his masters. Skidding mainly occurs when the speed of different wheels of the car mismatches leading to the overall motion and the direction of the car going in a way not expected by the driver. It can many times prove critical to the occupants and on people on the road.

Presence of sand, gravel, oil and other objects that changes the traction can lead to skidding. The presence of such things results in different wheels of the car having different speeds resulting in skidding.

Electronic stability control system keeps a track of speeds of different wheels of the car through electronic sensor systems and applies brakes automatically on individual wheels to bring the speeds within safe limits in order to avoid skidding.

Auto lane keeping
Auto lane in an innovative way of coordinating traffic on roads by adhering to particular lanes. It is a measure of safety as otherwise, you may go into someone’s vehicle if you move off your lane. The recent cars assures that the car adhere to its lane with the help of cameras.

The cameras placed on the front will capture regular frames of the road over a period and process it with the help of the image processing systems and project a path to the driver on his augmented reality display. The system can also project a path in the events the road goes pitch black over short span of length. Is by any chance the driver is not able to alter the course of his vehicle, the vehicle can do it for itself.

In this way, this technology helps in keeping the cars in an organized way leading to a better traffic control along with safer road practices.

Advanced cruise control
It is the approach of keeping a vehicle under constant speed as long as possible and resuming the speed levels when safe. When you’re amidst heavy traffic, the speed levels of the vehicle will automatically go down to suit the traffic on the road and after the traffic gets diluted, the vehicle goes back to its original speed.

Advanced cruise control is the art of accelerating and decelerating along with automatic application of brakes to modulate the speed levels of the car. This feature comes particularly handy in the events of getting stuck in traffic and when parking in a very cozy space. The fear of bumping into someones vehicle in front and someone bumping into yours from behind is run over by the automatic cruise control.

It is easy to handle the car on the road even if you are not a skilled driver. With the advanced motion control features, driving has become easy drivers need not get on their nerves in heavy traffic or cozy parking spaces. The vehicles are equipped with the skill to take that part of the pain of yours in their account.
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Know How to Decorate Walls for Wedding

There are so many things which may help you in decorating your home walls for wedding. This will give the home look as occasion. Decorating the walls will give ambiance to the wedding celebration and it also provides a beautiful background for photographs in wedding. Here are some of tips to decorate your wall for wedding.

Flowers: Using flowers we can decorate our wall in many ways either they may be artificial or real flowers. You can tie bunch of flowers with bows and paste them with the tape to your walls by giving some gap. Or you can us a single flower which is big and attach to your wall with tape.

Balloons: Inflate your balloons with helium, and then use two to three balloons for bouquet with same color. The ribbon should be tied to that balloons that should be three to four feet long. After tying the ribbon to the bouquet then wherever you want to display on the wall tape them by the ribbon by just above the knot which is holding the bouquet together. Then take tulle then cut into 4 to 5 feet long tie is together and tape on the wall at the same place where the balloon bouquet is taped. So repeat the process to tape as many bouquets as you want to decorate your interior walls.

Wall stickers: these will also give the pleasant look to your walls. For sticking them, you need to wash the wall with soapy water for removing the dust, dirt and grime to prevent the peeling over the short period of time. Then allow the wall to dry. Then remove the back paper from the sticky side of the sticker, and then spray the adhesive onto the back of the sticker. Shake well before doing this and a small amount is enough to do this lightly.

Then paste the sticker to the wall and smooth out it with your hands if necessary use the lint-free cloth and press out the air bubbles. Then, let it set up for an hour then if necessary use the lint-free cloth for smoothing.

You can also use some artificial thing to decorate your walls like butterflies, flowers, wreaths, fabric etc. You can decorate with some photos, hand painted things, and also with lights etc.

These are the some of the ways to decorate your walls hope; you will choose one of them for decorating your walls.
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Latest Features in Modern Automobiles

The transition
Vehicles of the past that reigned the market served the basic need of driving and the features were prominently focused on the operating efficiency of the vehicle. Vehicles with good ability to accelerate and good engine power were the main aspects that manufacturers emphasized. Every one was looking for fuel economy vehicles to good mileage.

But with the living standards getting high and their caliber to afford and the technology getting viable to common people has shifted the demand to features like luxury, comfort and utility as well.

Vehicle owners look for safety features to save themselves and their beloved ones. The new generation cars come equipped with all these features that are are likely to offer completely new experience of driving. Safety with comfort along with utility is the main concern and the cars in the market today are competent enough to deliver these at reasonable fortune.

Stepping up the safety features
Safety is one of the basic concern of a customer and the manufacturers do not want to lag behind and aims at assuring the customer over his concern. Manufacturers are coming up with high edge technologies that will provide the occupant of the vehicle with safety.

Air bags
Air bags are a basic feature yet a very effective safety system. The feature is affordable and is very affective in saving the driver and other occupants of the vehicle in case of an a collision. The traditional air bags were limited only to the driver protection and other occupants from head on collisions only.

Side air bags protect occupants from the harmful effects of collisions from different angles. Additionally, the utility of air bags has been extended to use them for braking also by deploying them underneath and cover them with friction offering coating.

Anti collision systems
Anti collision systems are a feature in many premium and luxury automobiles are offering them in the market. They initiate corrective steps and deploy brakes in the cases when the driver compromises with his alert levels compromising with the safety of the occupants. The occupants can now rely on the vehicle instead of the driver for their safety.

Diagnosis systems in today’s vehicles can check for the various parameters of the vehicle like the oil reservoirs, the engine temperature, the gas caps and many other and tell alert you and communicate to you effectively the gravity of the situation.

Alert level monitor is an integrated feature of many high end cars. These systems monitor continuously the alert levels of the driver during the course of the journey. The system uses the facial recognition systems and monitor the activity of the driver over dashboard and console to check for his alert levels.

Better utility features
Cars offering much more than just driving and operational efficiency is the car a customer is looking for. To cater to their needs the manufacturers are coming up with cars that has a lot more to offer. Utility features are one of them. They have completely transformed the experience of driving and turned it into a completely leisurely one.

Voice recognition systems are in place in premium cars that can authenticate the driver and can also accept brief commands for shuffling the channels over radio or open the windows etc.

Power console is an integrated feature of almost every car today. They offer sockets for charging mobile phones and Mp3 players and can also include cigarette lighters.

GPS systems integrated with cars can locate the car and pinpoint its location to the driver and also helps in giving directions to his destination. It is also easy to track the course of the vehicle online in cases of possible thefts.

Hot stone massages are also being provided in some cars that inflate and deflate the air pockets in the backrest to give massage to the driver during achy long journeys.

This is just to name a few and the list is quite long.

Economy features
Shifting their attention to utility and safety features the manufacturers have not lost their focus over economy. The industry is coming up with new ways to provide value for cost with many economy features.

Regenerative braking is a technique of braking in automobiles where the energy lost in lost is being used to charge the batteries or the capacitor banks giving them extra life and saving them from frequent charging

Engine start/stop feature is present in premium cars. This feature results in fuel economy in the virtue that they stop the engine during decelerating and braking and starts them again when accelerating thereby saving considerable fuel.

Solar and hybrid cars are a completely new class of vehicles. They rely considerably or completely on alternate sources of energy for their operation thus resulting in associated cost and fuel saving. They use the electrical or renewable sources for their power demand.

Adaptive high beam control is also an economy feature that results in battery life enhancement by controlling the intensity of the high beam based on the available levels of illumination on road.

Journey towards a better experience
The vehicles available in the market today is not about just driving. They are offering a completely new experience in driving with the large set of high end features they are offering. The vehicle of the day has a lot more to offer and is completely different from its previous counterpart. They have better security systems, better aesthetics, better economy, better comfort and better economy features. They are a way ahead of their previous counterparts. It has completely transformed the experience of driving and traveling.
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Types of Natural Gas Vehicles

Natural gas vehicles (NGV) are the vehicles run by alternative fuels such as compressed natural gas. Natural gas engines are suitable for a wide range of applications including aircraft, rail locomotives marine vessels, buses, heavy-duty trucks, light commercial vehicles, sedans and forklifts. According to the 2011 statistics, there are 14.8 million NGVs worldwide and 112,000 vehicles in the United States. There are different types of natural gas vehicles. We will discuss them briefly.

  • Dedicated engines: If the vehicle runs only by the natural gas, it is known as a dedicated vehicle. It can be a re-power engine or new vehicle engine. Normally in both the cases old fuel tank is concern supportive cylinders. This means they want to change for CNG, CNG cylinders are replaced for old cylinders. Sometimes these engines are also referred to as spark ignited. Dedicated engines provide optimum emissions and maximum efficiency.
  • Bi-fuel engines: Bi-fuel or switchable system or bivalent vehicles can run either spark ignited fuel or natural gas. The spark ignited fuels may be gasoline or ethanol. These are available either as an ex-showroom original equipment manufacturer (OEM) vehicle or aftermarket conversion. Generally, bi-fuel vehicles rely on the gasoline for ignition to turn on. These can either run on natural gas or gasoline. If the natural gas tank is empty, most vehicles switch automatically to gasoline.
  • Dual fuel engines: A mixture of diesel and natural gas is used in duel-fuel engines. A diesel pilot ignites the air-gas mixture. While the gas is introduced into the air intake by gas injection or by carburetion, diesel directly gets injected into the combustion chamber. The diesel and the natural gas mixture varies as per the duty cycle and the load of the engine. It can be anywhere from zero percent to eighty percent.

Diesel usage is higher at lower engine loads and gas usage is higher when the load on the engine is higher. These engines are generally conversion of a diesel engine. Therefore, the advantage with them is for fuel supply, we don’t need to completely depend upon natural gas. If the natural gas tank becomes empty and you are away from the source where it is available, you can go with diesel on your vehicle.

  • Tri-fuel engines: Tri-fuel is a recent technological development. These vehicles combine a natural gas vehicle and a flex fuel vehicle. A tri-fuel vehicle can run on natural gas, ethanol or gasoline or both because these vehicle engines use ethanol and gasoline either blended or exclusively.

NGVs are usually run on compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG). LNG is good for the vehicles that need to travel for long distances. For high mileage, CNG is a good choice.
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Most Brand Loyal Cars

Brand impacts the consumer purchase decision process as well reminds some specific quality of that brand. Good quality, reasonable price, and the consumer experience will improve the loyal to the brand. Forbes released a list of most brand loyal cars. Now we will see them.

  • Kia Forte: The Experian Automotive compiled the market data of 2011. It shows that the Kia Forte enjoyed the most brand loyalty among all new vehicles that were sold in United States. The Korean automaker registered 68 percent of repeated customers.
  • Chevrolet Cruze: Chevrolet Cruze is below the Kia Forte in terms of brand loyalty. There is an estimated 64 percent of Chevrolet Cruze buyers that are repeating. They are trying to obtain another popular compact of Chevrolet.
  • Ford Fiesta: Ford Fiesta is competing with Chevrolet Cruze. The brand has 63 percent of loyal customers. Even Ford Fiesta is new for 2011 customers interested in the brand and model. Prior to the Fiesta, there was no previous size in the company’s product line. Thus, we may assume that buyers who are repeated may go away from their larger models.
  • Ford Fusion: Ford Fusion is another one in the top most brand loyal cars list. With a small difference to Ford Fiesta, Ford Fusion has repeated loyal customers of 61 percent.
  • Kia Soul: Kia occupied another position in the brand loyal list with its Soul. As per the estimation with the available data 51 percent of the this model buyers purchased another Kia.
  • Ford Flex: As per the Experian Automotive data, 58 percent of the Ford Flex buyers remained loyal to the brand Ford during the second quarter of 2011.
  • Ford Edge: Ford Edge is another model from Ford that having high brad loyalty. 58 percent of the Ford Edge owned people in the second quarter of 2011 had owned a Ford model previously. Thus, it occupied a position in the most brand loyal cars list prepared by the Forbes.
  • Kia Forte Koup: Like the Kia’s four door counterpart, this also supported by Kia to retain the owners. 57 percent of the buyers in second quarter of 2011 are the loyal customers to Kia.
  • Ford Taurus: Ford Taurus is the most traditional passenger car from the Ford. This model has repeated customers of 56 percent from previous Ford owners.
  • Ford Focus: This was a redesigned model from the Ford. With 54 percent of repeated customers, Ford Focus contributes its part to brand loyalty of the company.

A majority in the list are occupied by the Ford and the Kia. Chevrolet is the only other brand among them. As for Ford models, six out of ten have a high brand loyalty followed by Kia with its three models. Chevrolet Cruze is the third one with a decent brand loyalty among these models.
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